Former South Korean military dictator Chun Doo-hwan dies at 90

FILE PHOTO: Former South Korean president Chun Doo-hwan, standing outside the walls of Anyang Prison, makes a point shortly after being released from the jail on a special pardon in Anyang December 22, 1997. REUTERS/Paul Barker

SEOUL: Former South Korean president Chun Doo-hwan, whose iron-fisted rule of the country following a 1979 military coup sparked massive democracy protests, died on Tuesday (Nov 23) at the age of 90, the Yonhap news agency said.

Chun had multiple myeloma, a blood cancer which was in remission, and died at his Seoul home, Yonhap said.

A former military commander, Chun presided over the 1980 Gwangju army massacre of pro-democracy demonstrators, a crime for which he was later convicted and received a commuted death sentence.

An aloof, ramrod-straight Chun during his mid-1990s trial defended the coup as necessary to save the nation from a political crisis and denied sending troops into Gwangju.

“I am sure that I would take the same action, if the same situation arose,” Chun told the court.

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FILE PHOTO: Former South Korean president Chun Doo-hwan, surrounded by bodyguards, walks under Buddhist prayer lanterns at the Chogye temple in Seoul December 30, 1997. REUTERS/Lee Young Ho

Chun was born on Mar 6, 1931, in Yulgok-myeon, a poor farming town in the south-eastern county of Hapcheon, during Japanese rule over Korea.

He joined the military straight out of high school, working his way up the ranks until he was appointed a commander in 1979.

Taking charge of the investigation into the assassination of President Park Chung-hee that year, Chun courted key military allies and gained control of South Korea’s intelligence agencies to headline a Dec 12 coup.

“In front of the most powerful organisations under the Park Chung-hee presidency, it surprised me how easily (Chun) gained control over them and how skilfully he took advantage of the circumstances,” Park Jun-kwang, Chun’s subordinate during the coup, later told journalist Cho Gab-je.

“In an instant he seemed to have grown into a giant.”

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FILE PHOTO: Former South Korean president Chun Doo-hwan, released from serving a life sentence in prison earlier this month, relates to monks at the Chogye temple in Seoul how Buddhism kept him going during his ordeals in prison December 30, 1997. REUTERS/Lee Young Ho

Chun’s eight-year rule in the presidential Blue House was marked by brutality and political repression. It was, however, also marked by economic prosperity.

Chun resigned from office amid a nationwide student-led democratic movement in 1987 demanding a direct electoral system.

In 1995, he was charged with mutiny and treason, and was arrested after refusing to appear at the prosecutors’ office and fleeing to his hometown.

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FILE PHOTO: File photo taken August 26, 1996 shows former South Korean president Chun Doo Hwan and his successor Roh Tae-woo who were sentenced life in jail for mutiny, treason and bribery. REUTERS/File Photo

At what local media dubbed the “trial of the century”, he and coup co-conspirator and succeeding President Roh Tae-woo were found guilty of mutiny, treason and bribery.

In their verdict, judges said that Chun’s rise to power came “through illegal means which inflicted enormous damage on the people”.

Thousands of students were believed to have been killed at Gwangju, according to testimonies by survivors, former military officers and investigators.

Roh was given a lengthy jail term while Chun was sentenced to death. However, that was commuted by the Seoul High Court in recognition of Chun’s role in the fast-paced economic development of the “Asian Tiger” and the peaceful transfer of the presidency to Roh in 1988.

Both men were pardoned and freed from jail in 1997 by President Kim Young-sam, in what he called an effort to promote “national unity”.

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Former South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan leaves for a court in Seoul, South Korea, August 9, 2021. Yonhap via REUTERS

Chun made several returns to the spotlight. He caused a national furore in 2003 when he claimed total assets of 291,000 won (US$245) of cash, two dogs and some home appliances – while owing about 220.5 billion won in fines.

His four children and other relatives were later found to own large swaths of land in Seoul and luxurious villas in the United States.

Chun’s family in 2013 vowed to pay off the bulk of his debt, but his unpaid fines still totalled about 100 billion won as of December 2020.

In 2020, Chun was found guilty and received an eight-month suspended sentence for defaming a late democracy activist and Catholic priest in his 2017 memoirs.